By David Arthur deSilva
This observation examines four Maccabees as a contribution to the continued reformulation of Jewish id and perform within the Greek-speaking Diaspora. It analyzes the Jewish author’s interplay with, and facility in, Greek rhetorical conventions, moral philosophy, and literary tradition, giving recognition additionally to his use and interpretation of texts and traditions from the Jewish Scriptures and different Hellenistic Jewish writings. The observation indicates the author’s skillful weaving jointly of a lot of these assets to create a textual content that translates the Torah-observant existence because the fullest embodiment of the simplest Greek moral beliefs. a particular characteristic is the exam of ways the adventure of examining four Maccabees in Codex Sinaiticus differs from the adventure of examining the eclectic textual content.
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Additional info for 4 Maccabees: Introduction And Commentary on the Greek Text in Codex Sinaiticus (Septuagint Commentary Series,)
11; see 4 Macc 9:7–9, 31–32; 10:11; 13:14–15). Martyrdom of Polycarp employs the concept of “witness bearing” as testimony given through the endurance of suﬀerings and death in the same sense as found in 4 Macc 16:16 (see Mart. Poly. 1; 13; 17). As in Ignatius, who exercised a strong inﬂuence upon a younger Polycarp, the martyr’s death is a new birth (Mart. Poly. 18; 4 Macc. 16:13). In both 4 Maccabees and Martyrdom of Polycarp, the martyr takes the prize and is crowned with immortality (Mart. Poly.
It is common for scholars of Origen to observe that he had 2 Maccabees in mind (Winslow 1974:81; Greer 1979:56), which is certainly true (see Exh. 23, which opens the scene xxxvi INTRODUCTION COMMENTARY with details found in 2 Macc 7:1–2, but not 4 Maccabees) but there are suﬃcient references to details and images found in 4 Maccabees to suggest that Origen drew on both texts as he composed his Exhortation. Origen frequently uses the image of the athletic contest, drawing not only on New Testament texts that feature this imagery (2 Tim 4:7–8; Heb 12:1–4), but also 4 Maccabees.
Freudenthal (1869:72–90), followed by Deissmann (1900:156), had attempted to argue that the authors of 2 and 4 Maccabees had worked independently of one another from the lost work of Jason of Cyrene, which the author of 2 Maccabees explicitly cites as his source (2 Macc 2:23). Freudenthal was led to this conclusion by a number of signiﬁcant deviations in the story line of 4 Maccabees from the story of 2 Maccabees, such as the disappearance of the character Heliodorus in the narration of INTRODUCTION xxxi the attempt to seize the private funds in the Temple treasury (compare 2 Macc 3:8–40 with 4 Macc 4:5–14).
4 Maccabees: Introduction And Commentary on the Greek Text in Codex Sinaiticus (Septuagint Commentary Series,) by David Arthur deSilva