By Mas'ud ibn Umar Taftazani

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Is error, sins. impossible for a prophet, for that deny the appearance in a prophet of made to him. both before and after revelations are Nevertheless they permit dissimulation in feigning Unbelief for a pious reason. came It especially in time to be accepted as the orthodox position that prophets Muhammad were preserved Fakhr al-Dln al-Razi among from error and falsehood. Since the Theologians who first it and was especially emphasized primary importance, we are not surprised that al-Nasafl, even though a disciple of the Hanafite school, does not mention it in his Articles of Belief.

The majority of them said that the jawhar [self-subsistent entity] itself was all that was required for obtaining the boundary (al-hayyiz) which marked existence, that is there was no quality subsisting in the jawhar itself. So there were two things, the jawhar itself and the obtaining of a boundary in existence, which they called fawn. But those of the Mutakallims who established the states (al-ahwal) said that this obtaining a boundary on the part of a jawhar was caused by a quality which subsisted in it.

J. D. Luciani, Les Prolegomenes theologiques de Senoussi (Algiers, 1908), pp. 14 f. All acts of Muslims come under one of these five headings, so when the term The Law (al-shar*) is used by al-Taftazam, this very broad usage must be kept in mind. The rational judgment (al-hul(m al-aqli) may be any one of three categories, necessity (wujub), impossibility (istihdla) and possibility (jawdz or imkjin). See Wensinck, The judgment is Muslim Creed, pp. 273 p. 15. ; Enc. of Islam, III, 260; al-Shahrastani, Kitdb Nih&yatu 'l-lqddm, REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS 6 connected with the first [8] is called the science of canon laws and judg- ments because these things are not comprehended except from the canon law (al-sha/), and it is only to these that the understanding turns when the [term] judgment is mentioned without further connected with the second is definition.

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A Commentary on the Creed of Islam by Mas'ud ibn Umar Taftazani


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