By A K Ramanujan

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Unlike the other elements, scrambling of the ga-marked phrases is not allowed. g. INFL) in Japanese. More specifically, the nominative case is only licensed in a certain syntactic context (in Saito’s term, [NP, S]), and the overt case marker must appear because a nominative phrase in question does not receive abstract case. Since scrambling creates an adjoined position, the landing sites for scrambled elements are not case-assigning positions. One piece of independent evidence for this claim is that Japanese allows multiple nominative constructions, as we saw in the previous sections.

Can be found in sentences with stative predicates indicating competence and likes/dislikes. As shown in (35)b, topicalization of the nominative phrase makes the sentence ungrammatical. 25 These constructions behave similarly in multiple nominative sentences, as shown in (36): (36) a Gengogaku-ga hakaseronbun-ga taihen-da linguistics-NOM dissertation-NOM hard-COP ‘(Writing) a dissertation in linguistics is hard’ b Topicalization Gengogaku-wa hakaseronbun-ga taihen-da linguistics-TOP dissertation-NOM hard-COP ‘Speaking of linguistics, (writing) a dissertation is hard’ c Cleft [hakaseronbun-ga taihen-na -no]-wa gengogaku-da dissertation-NOM hard-COP-NM-TOP linguistics-COP ‘It is linguistics where (writing) a dissertation is hard’ Topicalization and Cleft Constructions 29 d HERC [hakaseronbun-ga taihen-na] gengogaku dissertation-NOM hard-COP linguistics ‘linguistics where (writing) a dissertation is hard’ The first nominative phrase, gengogaku-ga ‘linguistics-NOM’, in (36)a can be topicalized as well as clefted without changing the meaning of the sentence, as illustrated in (36)b and (36)c respectively.

Considering this is a standard phenomenon in cleft constructions (Higgins (1979) among many others), we should expect (72)c and (73)c to be grammatical. 36 Scrambling and clefting So far, we have argued that cleft constructions in Japanese involve movement; specifically, a null operator in the presuppositional clause moves to the spec of CP. A null operator and a focus phrase form an agreement chain, and they do not have to satisfy syntactic principles and conditions independently. However, we have not discussed an alternative analysis; that is, the movement in cleft constructions is more like scrambling rather than operator movement.

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A generative grammar of Kannada by A K Ramanujan

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