By Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik

ISBN-10: 058252444X

ISBN-13: 9780582524446

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Extra resources for A Grammar of Contemporary English

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The structures realizing the verb element are in some ways the most straightforward since here it is a question always of a verb phrase. There is however considerable variety and complication even here. 10. Consider the following initial adverbial which takes the form of a clause with non-finite verb, having been challenged: Having been challenged rudely in the street, John was angry [22] Whether finite or non-finite, the verb phrase can consist of one word, as in [1] and most other illustrative sentences so far, or of more than one word, in which case the phrase consists of a' head verb' preceded by one or more 'auxiliary verbs' as with the non-finite verb phrase in [22] and the finite verb phrases in the following: He had given the girl an apple He has been challenged rudely He may be growing happier The subject of a sentence may consist of a 'clause' as in [9], but44 The sentence: a preliminary view usually of a 'noun phrase", a variable and potentially highly complex unit which will be examined further in Chapters 4 and 13.

J [14] [15] [16] [17T fmono :0a LVdyn^ UxtJ [complex: "oaC0 [20] Untransitive [21]J (A (A place) (A time) Parts of the sentence 43 She is in London (now) [14] She is a student (in London) (now) [15] John heard the explosion (from his office) (when he was locking the door) [16] Universities (gradually) became famous (in Europe) (during the Middle Ages) ' [17] They ate the meat (hungrily) (in their hut) (that night) [18] He offered (her) some chocolates (politely) (outside the hall) (before the concert) [19] They elected him chairman (without argument) (in Washington) (this morning) [20] The train had arrived (quietly) (at the station) (before we noticed it) [21] Note Among the less important patterns ignored in this formula are V stative as ditrans (He owes me some money) and as complex-trans (She thinks him brilliant) and the obligatory A with V dynamic intrans (He lives In London) and trans (She put the vase on the table).

4 Complements and objects Quite apart, however, from the differences in internal structure between one element and another, there are other differences already illustrated in [1-9] that must concern us immediately. For example, the relation between the room in [1] and the other elements in that sentence is very different from the relation between the girl in [5] and its fellow elements, though both are labelled 'object'. Even more obviously, perhaps, the two elements labelled 'object* in [5] play sharply distinct roles in this sentence.

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A Grammar of Contemporary English by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik

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