By Simon Collier
Supplying an summary of Chilean heritage for the final reader in addition to the professional, this article employs fundamental and secondary fabrics to research the nation's political, monetary, and social evolution from independence to 2002. in contrast to different works, the amount examines intensive the newest occasions of Chile's historical past: the diversification of its financial system, unfold of democratic associations, development of public healthiness, and emergence of a wealthy highbrow tradition. First variation Hb (1996): 0-521-56075-6 First version Pb (1996): 0-521-56827-7
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Additional info for A History of Chile, 1808-2002
68. Chapter01 CY399/Collier 0 521 82749 3 November 7, 2003 20:23 Char Count= 0 Colonial foundations, 1540–1810 17 eighteenth century brought greater Chilean independence vis-`a-vis Peru. The creation of a local mint in Santiago (1750), and the foundation of a separate Consulado (1796) set the seal on this process. The liberal historians of the nineteenth century sometimes blamed the “odious Spanish monopoly” for having constricted Chile’s colonial trade. Modern research by Sergio Villalobos and others has undermined this view.
The composition of this colonial elite changed discernibly in the eighteenth century. With growing commercial opportunities, thousands of Spaniards migrated to the colony – approximately 24,000 between 1700 and 1810. Roughly half of these came from the Basque country or Navarre – hence Miguel de Unamuno’s celebrated remark that the two greatest creations of the Basques were the Society of Jesus and the Republic of Chile. The most successful members of this migratory group made enough money (normally in trade) to buy themselves haciendas and to take their place in the upper class.
This imposing economic role, combined with their suspiciously ultramontane opinions, was their eventual undoing: in 1767 the order was abruptly expelled from the Spanish empire. Of the 400 Jesuits deported from Chile by Governor Guill y Gonzaga, half were priests and three-quarters creole. It was perhaps the single most dramatic occurrence in eighteenth-century Chile. ” was a question asked by censustakers in 1854, when trying to establish the number of centenarians in the country. Apart from leaving a wide gap in education, the expulsion also placed a fair number of well-run haciendas on the market.
A History of Chile, 1808-2002 by Simon Collier