By Philipp Haller
Contemporary developments in machine structure make concurrency and parallelism an important aspect of effective application execution. The actor version of concurrency enables you to exhibit real-world concurrency in a ordinary method utilizing concurrent strategies that converse through asynchronous messages.
Scala is a programming language for the Java digital laptop, offering first-class help for either object-oriented and sensible programming. via together with a robust actor framework in its ordinary library, Scala deals a compelling method of take on concurrent programming. Scala's actors allow you to practice the actor concurrency version to the JVM, allowing real-world suggestions which are effective, scalable, and strong.
Published via Artima, this can be the 1st e-book on Scala's actors, co-authored by means of the writer and lead maintainer, Philipp Haller, and Frank Sommers. beginning with the basics of the actor concurrency version, this publication bargains a complete educational on functional programming with actors in Scala. It permits you to leverage the complete energy of ultra-modern and tomorrow's multi-core processors through describing either uncomplicated and complex gains of Scala's actor framework in-depth.
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Additional info for Actors in Scala
Some of the methods to wait for the result of a future rely on the threadbased r❡❝❡✐✈❡ under the hood. While waiting for the result, those methods monopolize the underlying worker thread. It is also possible to wait for a future in an event-based way with r❡❛❝t. For example, suppose we would like to render a summary of all images linked from a web page at a given URL. 7 · Image renderer using futures. individually once the image finished downloading. To increase the throughput of the application, each image is downloaded by its own actor.
Those actors interact merely by passing messages, and have no reference to a shared notion of time. Instead, arrival orderings of events in an actor-based system refer to the time local to an actor—there is no requirement to have a notion of global time. Viewing computations as a partial order of actor events occurring in local time to an actor turns out to be a powerful abstraction. The designers of the actor programming model demonstrated that you can implement any control structure as a sequence of actor events.
As soon as the actor receives the last element in the series, it could send the result to the continuation. But since message delivery order is not guaranteed, the last element may be received in any order, resulting possibly in a premature sending of the result. , reworking the contents of the messages. For instance, the above message could include, instead of the ❧❛st❊❧❡♠❡♥t flag, the number of elements in the series. Throughout this book, we will include tips and techniques to design actor communication that does not rely on message order.
Actors in Scala by Philipp Haller